Creating maps for vision-impaired person

Have you considered issues of color-blindness in symbology selections for your maps? Use this free tool to view how a vision-impaired person will see the maps.



Interesting Quotes

“Rational planners have been obsessed with controlling how and when and which people use public as well as private space. Meanwhile, ordinary people continue to find creative ways of appropriating spaces and creating places, in spite of planning, to fulfill their desires as well as their needs, to tend the spirit as well as take care of the rent.” – Sandercock, L. Toward Cosmopolis: Utopia as construction site. In Readings in planning theory

“Abu Dhabi 2030”

Currently the city of Abu Dhabi has a population of 1 million. By the time of 2030, the figure will rise to 3 million. What will the urban planning department deal with such a large population, and guide the city towards sustainability? This short video will tell you.

Land Development – Financial Institutions and Analysis

  • What Are Capital Markets and How do They Work?

Real Estate competes with other investments on a risk/return basis.

Debt ranges from 0-100%, and normally 50-80%; equity ranges from 20-50%.

Debt is repaid from project proceeds before equity.

  • Four Types of Real Estate Investments

Public Private
Equity Equity REIT Individuals
Debt Mortgage REIT Banks

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Real Estate Development Drivers, Risks, and Risk Mitigation

  • Real Estate Development Drivers


Housing (retail): demolitions, population growth, reduction of household size, shifting of household type toward non-family, increase proportion of middle-age and seniors, etc.
Commercial and Industrial: employment growth, etc.


increase of land prices and supplies, increase of material prices, reduction of mortgage rates, increase of labor costs, etc.


Cultural values and attitudes, infrastructure, etc.

  • Mega Trends

High housing vacancy

Rapid growth of seniors

Flat per capita income growth

Potential post-recession surges in employment and housing starts

Fastest growth in medical, office and educational occupations

Job leadership by small establishments

Strong inflation in steel prices

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Urban Design Case Study – Laguna West, Sacramento County, California

Laguna West occupies an area of 1,045 acres. It is the first application of Calthorpe’s Transit-Oriented Development principles, which is now embraced in the general plan for Sacramento.

Design Features:

  • Pedestrian friendly neighborhoods that encourage walking
  • A town center
  • A nature/riparian zone

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Real Estate Development Process and Major Players

“[…] developers must understand the users and their needs. Without users, buildings – no matter how aesthetically pleasing or how theoretically functional – have no value.”

  • What is Real Estate Development/Land Development?

Real estate development is the continual reconfiguration of the built environment to meet society’s needs.

  • The 8 Stages Non-linear Process of Real Estate Development

Inception of an Idea: market research, problem solving, creating
Refinement of the Idea: site selection, project design
Feasibility: public and private review
Contract Negotiation: contractors, tenants, regulators
Formal Commitment: contracts and entitlements
Construction: building
Completion and Formal Opening: marketing , sales
Property, Asset, and Portfolio Management” tenants and technology

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